Quetzalcoatl

INFLUENTIAL INDIVIDUALS, ENTREPRENEURS & ENTITIES

 

Inducted into the

HISTORY of HOT SAUCES & SALSAS

WORLD REGISTRY

— Created by Chuck Evans, Historian of Hot Pepper Sauces & Salsas and Innovative Creator of Chuck Evans’ MONTEZUMA Brand Sauces & Salsas, Columbus, Ohio …”Fresh Out of the Jar”…Since 1986

— Chuck Evans is the sole surviving manufacturer/exhibitor from the very 1st National Fiery Foods Show, El Paso, Texas (1988), since held annually in Albuquerque, New Mexico

— Collector of the World’s Largest Antique & Vintage Peppersauce Bottle Collection (ca. 1830-1930)

— Co-author, The HOT SAUCE BIBLE, Crossing Press (1996)…premised on Chuck Evans’ Published Collection of Chile Sauces & Salsas, the World’s Largest Collection through May 1995

— Co-author, PEPPER PANTRY: CHIPOTLE, Celestial Arts (1997)…based on Chuck Evans’ creation of the very 1st Smokey Chipotle® Peppersauce & 1st Smokey Chipotle® Salsa manufactured in the United States; exhibited at the New York National Association of the Specialty Food & Tradeshow (NASFT); where Chuck introduced the Chile Chipotle spice to the mainstream United States culinary world.

2016, April 15 INDUCTEES
  1.  PRE-CONQUEST INDIGENOUS PEOPLES of MESOAMERICA  

CEREN, EL SALVADOR

CHIAPAS, MEXICO

 Researchers analyze starch grains of chiles, which starch grains preserve well and are identifiable to species, to trace the history of chiles in the Americas. At seven sites around Latin America, microscopic starch grains, recovered on house floors, on grindstones (milling stones), in artifacts/cooking vessels, and in trash heaps/sediment samples, were found to be residue from domesticated Capsicum microfossils. Cultivated chile starch grains are discernible from wild chiles.  Remains of domesticated chiles have been found with corn, forming part of an ancient food complex that predates pottery in some areas.

 The oldest  traces/microfossils, dated to circa 6,000 years ago, were found at Lomo Alta and Real Alto in southwestern Ecuador.  In southeastern Mexico (in the state of Puebla bordering Oaxaca & Veracruz), more convincing macrofossil (clearly visible without a microscope) data, from the Coxcatlan Cave in the Tehuacan Valley was dated to circa 6,000 years ago.  

 The strongest chile-related archaeological evidence reported (paleoethnobotanical vessel contents), comes from the site of Ceren in El Salvador.  The carbonized remains were well-preserved by the ash and lava from the Lomo Caldera volcanic eruption in CE 540 (1476 years ago).  This finding indicated direct results of chiles used in cooking, the predecessor to today’s chile sauces.  Supporting evidence from the site of Chiapa de Corzo, near Tuxtla Guiterrez in the state of Chiapas, Mexico confirms numerous different vessels (spouted jars, bowls, vases) containing chile residue. The study initially was conducted to search for traces of (Theobromo) cacao {used to make a chocolate frothy beverage mixed with spices, including chile, for the Mayan elite class} that tested positive for domesticated Capsicum to the Middle Preclassic (Maya) period, circa 400 BCE (2416 years ago).  

 The presumptive conclusion, i.e., where the residue did not contain macrofossil evidence, is that the chiles were ground into a paste or salsa (sauce) and subsequently used as a seasoning in foods.  

 The WORLD REGISTRY & ALL CONSUMERS of CHILE are INDEBTED to the PRE-CONQUEST INDIGENOUS PEOPLES of MESOAMERICA.

 Sources: Smithsonian Institution and the journal, Science, February 16, 2007; Prehispanic Use of Chili Peppers in Chiapas, Mexico, Public Library of Science (PLOS), November 13, 2013.

 

  1.  EUGENE R. DURKEE

E.R. DURKEE (& Co.) [Est. 1850]

BUFFALO, NEW YORK

Eugene R. Durkee began packing spices and extracts in his Buffalo, New York basement in 1850, where he advertised as a wholesale agent for several other drug store lines. It is believed by early food historians that Durkee was the first to pack his spices in tin containers instead of cardboard boxes. In 1857 he created his Durkee Famous (Salad) Dressing And Meat Sauce, a dressing made with 12 spices steeped in vinegar; also adding Worcesterchire Sauce, Mayonnaise, Oleomargarine, Relish, Cooking and Salad Oils, as well as multiple packaged foods under the Durkee Famous Foods banner.  In June 1858 E.R. Durkee moved his business to Brooklyn, New York where it eventually became part of the Glidden Co. in 1929, and after a series of partners and mergers, was sold to Reckitt & Colman (Great Britain) in 1986.

 E.R. Durkee was known for his Design-patented embossed glass bottles, salad dressing bottles, extract bottles, curry powder bottles, salt shaker bottles, spiral peppersauce bottlles, and beehive peppersauce bottles.  

 A distinctive thick hexagonal round or “beehive” bottle, embossed on the bottom: PATENTED  ERD & Co FEB 74 was the earliest Durkee Pepper Sauce bottle. A large quantity of E R DURKEE NEW YORK and E R DURKEE & CO NEW YORK embossed bottles are routinely excavated in late 19th and early 20th century archaeological sites.  By 1896, for another sauce with a “piquancy and richness of flavor”, Durkee adopted bottles similar to Lea & Perrins Worcestershire Sauce, embossed vertically E.R. DURKEE & CO and on the shoulders, CHALLENGE and SAUCE.  An 1873 Durkee advertisement boldly boasts “Pronounced by connoisseurs unqualifiedly the best, and at the same time a “perfect Sauce” for table use. It is cheaper than the English, and no dearer than the disgusting trash put up in this country and sold as Sauces.”

 Durkee Famous Foods Pepper Sauces were the common Cayenne Pepper Sauces that proliferated under several large Eastern Seaboard manufacturers and were distributed nationwide. A pre-Colombian chile cultivar, the word Cayenne, or Bird Pepper as this variety was known in the 1800s, {Capsicum Annuum var. Cayenne} derives from the native Brazilian Tupi language family. Cayenne is also the name of the river that runs through French Guiana/Guyane (this country is located between Suriname and Brazil on the northeastern coast of South America), as well as, the name of the capital of French Guiana. However, Cayenne chiles are no longer cultivated in South America.

For a period of time, Durkee’s manufactured the Cayenne Pepper Sauce, originally called “Frank’s Red Hot Pepper Sauce“.  In 1977, when Frank’s [Frank’s RedHot’s recipe dates to 1896 to the Frank Tea and Spice Company in Cincinnati, Ohio…Jacob Frank will be a forthcoming WORLD REGISTRY Inductee] was bought by Durkees Famous Foods, this sauce was marketed as “Durkee Louisiana Hot Sauce“.  The 1986 purchase by R.T. French Company (a subsidiary of present owner Reckitt-Benckiser) put “Frank’s” back in the name “Durkee’s Frank’s Original Red Hot Cayenne Pepper Sauce” because of the fame of the Anchor Bar and Grill (Buffalo, New York) for it’s origin (1964) of Buffalo Chicken Wings and exclusive use of Frank’s Original Red Hot (Chicken Wing) Cayenne Pepper Sauce.

 Subsequently, “Durkee’s” was dropped and the perennial best-selling category leading “hot sauce” is currently marketed under “Frank’s Original Red Hot Cayenne Pepper Sauce“.

 

  1.  WILBUR L. SCOVILLE [1865-1942]

Pharmacist, Research Scientist, Author

Parke-Davis Pharmeceutical Company

DETROIT, MICHIGAN

 Author of THE ART OF COMPOUNDING (1895), textbook used for 70 years as the definitive reference for pharmocology.  Wilbur Scoville also authored the lesser known EXTRACTS AND PERFUMES.

 Creator of the Scoville Organoleptic Test [1912]

 The empirical measurement of piquancy (pungency/spicy heat) of chiles, a function of capsaicin concentration. In Scoville’s method, an exact weight of dried pepper is dissolved in alcohol to extract the heat components (capsinoids), then diluted in a solution of sugar water. Decreasing concentrations of the extracted capsinoids are given to a panel of five trained tasters, until a majority (at least three) can no longer detect the heat in a dilution. Weaknesses of the Scoville Organoleptic Test are its imprecision due to human subjectivity, depending on the taster’s palate and their number of mouth heat receptors, and sensory fatigue.

 Due to its scientific accuracy, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) supplanted the Scoville Organoleptic Test, however, the unit measurement of capsaicinoid concentration, i.e., the Scoville Heat Unit (SHU), remains the standardized name for the measurement of spiciness of chiles and chile products.

 — 1922 The American Pharmaceutical Association (APhA) awarded Wilbur Scoville with the Ebert Prize, to “recognize the author(s) of the best report of original investigation of a medicinal substance…”

— 1929 The American Pharmaceutical Association (APhA) awarded Wilbur Scoville with their top award, The Remington Honor Medal.  The same year he also received an honorary Doctor of Science from Columbia University.

2015, April 15 Inaugural INDUCTEES
  1.  STICKEY & POOR SPICE COMPANY [Est. 1815]

William Stickney; Rufus B. Stickney (brother of Charles L. Stickney)

& John R. Poor

The Oldest Pure Spice Milling Company in the United States

BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS

Stickney & Poor is the oldest spice milling company in the United States and today the name Stickney & Poor remains alive on billions of condiments and spice packets. In 2015, it celebrated its 200th birthday. The company introduced the innovative use of neat and attractive printed labels on its goods, replacing unsightly stencil-markings.

William Stickney was established as a mustard manufacturer in Boston in 1815.  It is interesting to note that “Massachusetts was home in 1807 to the first known American bottled  pepper sauces …”   Also excerpted from BOTTLES FROM THE DEEP,  Ellen C. Gerth, Shipwreck Heritage Press (2006) p.69, described the excavation of “more than 150 such (pepper) sauce bottles” where “(a)t least a half dozen of the bottles still hold some remnants of…well-preserved red or green chili peppers,…” from the Steamship Republic lost in 1865, in a hurricane 100 miles off the Georgia coast, at the close of the Civil War.

In 1834, William Stickney opened a large grocery store combining with his spice company, Subsequently, William relinquished his mustard manufacturing concern to his son, Rufus, who in 1848, joined with John R. Poor .

It is important to note that Charles Lowell Stickney (and his son with the same name), owned and operated, Stickney Mustard Co. of New York City. Charles was the brother of Rufus B. Stickney of the Stickney & Poor Spice Company of Boston.

This Historian owns a color photocopy of the earliest known handwritten invoice for pepper sauce sold commercially. The October 19, 1835 Stickney & Poor invoice to customer Silas Pierce lists 21 Pepper Sauce bottles purchased at a wholesale cost of $1.00 per bottle.

Stickney & Poor Spice Company historian, Owen Mathewson, provided several additional Stickney & Poor invoices for comparison. Located on Chatham Street (and later listed on  Chatham Row) in Boston, Massachusetts, Stickney & Poor’s invoice heading describes itself as “Manufacturers of and Dealers in Mustard, Yeast Powder, Pepper Sauce, Coffee, Spices, & C.”

Interestingly, another New York City Pepper Sauce was being bottled, circa 1840s, by Wells Miller & Provost, No. 217 Front Street, New York; which label information was embossed on an identical glass bottle to Stickney & Poor’s pepper sauce bottle. It is likely that the same glass bottle manufacturer produced the bottles.

During the 1870-1880s, it appears from the use of identical pepper sauce bottles (other than embossing), that the E.R. Durkee & Company in New York and Stickney & Poor Spice Company in Boston, became great rivals.

  

  1.  WELLS, MILLER & PROVOST [Est. 1837]

JOHN WELLS, EBENEZER MILLER and STEPHEN PROVOST

NEW YORK, NEW YORK

 In 1837, John B. Wells established a New York City bottling manufacture for pickling, fruit preserves and condiments, forming a partnership with Ebeneezer Miller in 1841.  Three years later they joined with Stephen H. Provost where the firm became the nation’s most prolific bottler and distributor (of embossed bottles with the partner’s names and intitals) in that era, expanding to the west coast as early as the mid-1850s, establishing a western distribution outlet for their popular products. Wells, Miller, & Provost manufactured pickles, pepper sauces, many varieties of jarred fruits & preserves, extracts, spices, tomato catsup, gherkins, and jellies.

 The firm’s extensive use of lead labels, listing their 217 Front Street address, created a value-added price point.  Miller left the partnership in 1854 and a management change occurred in 1867.

 Embossed W.M. & P. N.Y. glass pickle bottles were excavated from both steamships, Arabia and Bertrand, which sank in the Missouri River in 1856 and 1865, respectively.  

 Stephen Provost continued the pickling operation at 70 Fulton Street until 1883, where he listed the manufacture of sauces.  By 1887, the company’s reign ended.

 

  1.  COLONEL MAUNSEL WHITE [1783-1863]

LOUISIANA BLUES MILITIA

under GENERAL ANDREW JACKSON; WAR of 1812

Created “Concentrated Extract of Tobasco Sauce” [ca. 1855]

at DEER RANGE PLANTATION

PLAQUEMINES PARISH, LOUISIANA

After the Battle of New Orleans, Colonel Maunsel White, became active as a commission merchant, and pursuant to, his extensive wartime contacts, Maunsel White was appointed a New Orleans commissioner. The New Orleans Canal and Banking Company, which owned and built the New Basin Canal, was founded by Maunsel White. Financially, the canal was a success serving as a transport to downtown New Orleans and opening up trade with communities north of Lake Pontchartrain and cities along the Gulf of Mexico.  Maunsel White invested heavily as a sugar cane farmer, receiving U.S. Patent No. 1,326 on September 17, 1839 for an evaporating pan in setting and arranging sugar kettles.  Maunsel White also marketed cotton grown from his war contacts, including General John Coffee from Tennessee, the subsequent Surveyor General of Mississippi Territory & Alabama Lands, who also served under General Jackson.

 Maunsel White operated his Deer Range plantation growing sugar cane, corn, and other crops.  In 1858, his son Maunsell White, Jr. (1835-1883) purchased “Junior Place”, formerly the Velasco Plantation.  Maunsel White and his eldest son kept extensive plantation records, including a set of plantation journals from 1852-1883 documenting the operation of the White’s plantations;  diaries of his agricultural pursuits and economic conditions, including New Orleans business news, crop predictions, and cotton shipments.  Also included are a set of autograph books and letters of correspondence with Andrew Jackson, Zachary Taylor, and letters written to his eldest son, who attended Mandeville College near Baton Rouge as well as the University of Virginia.  These records are documented in the “Inventory of the Maunsel White Papers, 1802-1912”, Collection Number 2234, at the Manuscripts Department of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

 Of special interest in the Maunsel White Papers is a letter of 13 June 1847 in which Maunsel White described the reception of returning Mexican-American war heroes in New Orleans. The war arose from the competing claims to Texas by Mexico and the United States in the wake of the Mexican Revolution. According to a series of articles from the Metropolitan News-Enterprise and conversation with the great-great grandson bearing the same name of Maunsel White; The New Orleans Daily Delta published an article on January 26, 1850 [18 years before the McIlhenny Company/Tabasco {Family Member and CEO Tony Simmons on 60 Minutes (2015)} claimed to have started growing Tabasco peppers AND claiming Edmund McIlhenny invented “hot sauce”]:

 “Col. White has introduced the celebrated tobasco red pepper, the very strongest of all peppers, of which he cultivated a large quantity with the view of supplying his neighbors, and diffusing it throughout the state.”

 The article reports:

 “Owing to its oleaginous character, Col. White found it impossible to preserve it by drying; but by pouring strong vinegar on it after boiling, he has made a sauce or pepper decoction of it, which possesses in a most concentrated form all the quantities of the vegetable.  A single drop of the sauce will flavor a whole plate of soup or other food.  The use of a decoction like this, particularly in preparing the food for laboring persons, would be exceedingly beneficial in a relaxing climate like this.  Col. White has not had a single case of cholera among his large gang of negroes since the disease appeared in the south.  He attributes this to the free use of this valuable agent.”

 Maunsel White’s “Concentrated Extract of Tobasco Sauce” (spelling of Tobasco used circa 1850s-1863) was commercially available throughout the dining establishments in New Orleans, and also available, where “Concentrated Extract of Tobasco Sauce” was listed, on the dining menus of the steamships and paddleboats that plied the Mississippi River.  

Maunsel promoted his sauce with his custom-made Silver Service Valet glass container, and mounted  to the top of the valet (with an attached silver spoon), was a porcelain “Red Devil” figure.  Maunsel was the first to “advertise” a red devil (a common name for the chile).  The “Red Devil” figure was copied by many later Louisiana hot sauce manufacturers for promotional advertisements (Tabasco Sauce {McIlhenny Company}) and product marketing/labels (Trappey’s Fine Foods {B&G Foods}); (Frank’s RedHot Sauce {Reckitt-Benckiser}).